Exclusion, longer and less predictable life cycles, urban concentration and parallel depopulation Country Email List in other territorial spaces force us to rethink welfare policies, which they were conceived from statist and homogenizing premises. At the same time, they pose serious challenges to democracy and forms of political and social participation. Rethink Country Email List welfare policies Dilemmas and tensions between equality and diversity In his key work, The Great Transformation , Karl Polanyi warned, in a distant 1944, that the deep movement of commodification of life that had been Country Email List generated throughout the 19th.
Century and the beginning of the 20th had as a response a countermovement, which Country Email List demanded protection against the loss of referents and social capacities capable of compensating for the impoverishing and competitive dynamics that capitalism generated1. The renewed dissemination of Polanyi's thought and reflections Country Email List is linked to the continuity, with other formats and concretions, of these two movements today. We can see it in the difficulty of the States to adequately respond to the demands for protection in the face of uncertainties, penalties, fears Country Email List and situations of impoverishment and exclusion that the Great Recession of 2008 caused by aggravating the effects that neoliberalism and deregulated globalization had been generating.
Let us remember that industrial society was characterized by a clear break between work and subsistence; by Country Email List
strong doses of technological innovation coming "from outside" of everyday work experiences; by painful transitions from countryside to city; by reduction of familiar formats; and by strong segmentations in the sexual division of Country Email List labor. Phases or vital stages that separate training, work and retirement or abandonment of salaried work were Country Email List established with greater clarity. It was then, at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, when the public authorities progressively assumed protection and vital sustainability tasks, as a way of generating less conflictive and socially bearable transitions. Public policies were taking shape as the institutional response (first Bismarckian, then of the.